The definitions given here are for the context used.

Angiography – a technique of injecting dye to highlight the inside of blood vessels and organs of the body, followed by taking a picture.

Antibody – a blood protein made by the body in response to an invader, such as bacteria or virus or toxin. The antibody is specifically structured to respond to a particular invader.

Antitoxin – an antibody produced in response to and capable of neutralizing a specific biologic toxin, such as the toxins produced by diphtheria bacteria or tetanus bacteria.

Aplastic anemia – a rare form of blood cancer in which the bone marrow stops making red blood cells.

Apologetics – a school that teaches by formal defense of a religious philosophy by argument and discourse. Alfred Nobel attended the “Apologetics School” from 1841 to 1842.

Ballistite – an explosive mixture invented in 1887 by Alfred Nobel, consisting of 10% camphor and equal parts nitroglycerine and guncotton (a syrupy solution of nitrated cellulose).

Body mass index (BMI) – a weight-to-height ratio, calculated by dividing one’s weight in kilograms by the square of one’s height in meters and used as an indicator of obesity and underweight.

Brain – an organ in the head composed largely of nerve circuits.

Cerebral – relating to the brain

Cholera – a bacterial disease of the small intestine, typically contracted from infected water supplies and causing severe vomiting and diarrhea.

Cognitive – involving conscious intellectual activity, such as thinking, reasoning, calculating, or remembering.

Contagious disease – illness which is transmitted to other persons, either by physical contact with the person suffering the disease, or by casual contact with their secretions or objects touched by them or airborne route among other routes.

Crimean war – a war fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in the southwestern region of Crimea, in which the Russian Empire opposed an alliance of the Ottoman Empire, France, Britain and Sardinia. It was a struggle for control of the lands of the declining Ottoman Empire, but it was justified under the guise of Russia claiming a need to protect Eastern Orthodox Christians, while the alliance claimed to protect Roman Catholics.  In fact, the war proceeded after the religious leaders came to an agreement.

Cloning – the process of making a genetically identical copy.

Cordite – smokeless explosive made from nitrocellulose, nitroglycerine, and petroleum jelly.

Cortisol – a steroid hormone made mainly in the adrenal glands that are located in man on top of the kidneys.

Diatomaceous earth – a soft rock that crumbles easily into an absorbent powder. It is found as sediment of fossilized skeletons of tiny algae that have silica in their skeletons, currently used in pest control, polishing pastes, and filtration.

Diphtheria – a highly contagious bacterial infection of the nose and throat.

Dynamite – an explosive made of nitroglycerin, diatomaceous earth, and stabilizers, patented by Alfred Nobel in 1867.

Effectiveness – the degree to which a treatment produces its intended effect.

Ethics – the basic concepts and fundamental principles of decent human conduct

Eugenics – controlled breeding to increase or decrease the occurrence of certain heritable characteristics. For example, a ban on interracial marriage is a eugenics policy.

Gender – Gender is still defined in most dictionaries as “the state of being male or female in relation to the social and cultural roles.”

Genetic – relating to genes or heredity.

Genetic mutation – chemical alterations in the sequence of proteins that make up a gene.

Hanged – having been suspended by a rope around the neck until dead.

Humanitarian – concerned with, or seeking to promote human welfare.

Hung – past tense of hang; to suspend or be suspended from above with the lower part dangling free. For example: He hung the sheets on the clothesline.

Hygienic – maintaining health and preventing disease, especially by being clean.

Imbecilic – a person afflicted with moderate intellectual disability.

Immune mechanisms – ways that a living organism defends itself, such as by barriers (like the skin or mucous), chemicals (like the production of antibodies against invaders), or by cells (such as cells that engulf and digest bacteria).

Immunization – the process whereby a body is made immune or resistant to an infectious disease. This is different from vaccination, which is to give a substance in order to stimulate the body’s own immune system, in hopes of provoking immunity.

Infectious disease – illness caused by organisms, such as bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites.

Insulin – a hormone made by the body to drive sugar into cells to use as fuel.

Lethal – refers to a substance or act that is a sure way to death.

Leukemia – cancer of the body’s blood-forming tissues, including the bone marrow and the lymphatic system, affecting mostly white blood cells.

Lice – the plural of louse, a small parasitic insect that lives on the body.

Liver – an organ in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen that has many functions, including clearing toxins from the body, making bile, which helps carry away waste and break down fats in the small intestine during digestion, making certain blood proteins, making cholesterol, regulating glucose and amino acids, storing iron, regulating blood clotting, making immune factors to clear infection.

Longitudinal – involving information about an individual or group gathered over a long period of time.

Malaria – a disease caused by a parasite transmitted by a mosquito bite, transferring the parasite into the human’s blood cells, where it causes an illness characterized by high fevers and yellow jaundice.

Manhattan Project – a U.S.-led research and development project during World War II that produced the first nuclear weapons.

Manifesto – a public declaration of intentions, opinions, objectives, or motives.

Metamorphosis – a complete change of form, structure, or substance, or any complete change in appearance, character, circumstances.

Mind – the collection of mental image pictures and analytical data used to create and resolve problems.

Morbidity – the condition of being diseased; the disease rate in a population.

Mortality – death, or being subject to death.

Neurotransmitter – biochemicals that facilitate or block transmission of impulses from nerve to nerve.

Nitroglycerine – a manmade explosive yellow liquid

Parasite – an organism that depends for its food on its host. For example, Entamoeba is a parasite that lives in the gut and can cause diarrhea in humans.

Pasteur Institute – the Institut Pasteur is a private, non-profit foundation. Its mission is to help prevent and treat diseases, mainly those of infectious origin, through research, teaching, and public health initiatives.

Pathologic – relating to disease or diseased, abnormal tissues. From Greek pathologikos ‘treating of diseases’ — pathos means ‘suffering.’

Pertussis – also known as whooping cough, pertussis is a highly contagious respiratory illness. From per- ‘away, extremely’ + Latin tussis ‘a cough.’

Physiology – the way a living organism or body part functions.

Plague – a contagious bacterial disease characterized by fever and delirium, typically with the formation of swollen inflamed lymph nodes in the armpit or groin (bubonic plague) and sometimes infection of the lungs (pneumonic plague).

Quarantine – a state of isolation in which people or animals that have arrived from elsewhere or been exposed to infectious or contagious disease are placed.

Quixotic – extremely idealistic; unrealistic and impractical.

Rheumatoid arthritis – a chronic progressive disease causing inflammation in the joints and resulting in painful deformity and immobility, especially in the fingers, wrists, feet, and ankles.

Smallpox – an acute contagious viral disease, with fever and pustules usually leaving permanent scars. It was effectively eradicated through vaccination by 1979.

Syphilis – a sexually transmitted bacterial infection.

Tuberculosis – an infectious disease caused by bacteria and usually affecting the lungs and lymph nodes.

Vaccination – inoculation with an infectious agent in the hopes of provoking the body to develop an immunity to it.

Virulent – capable of causing disease.

Vitality – quality of survival and growth.Diatomaceous

Warburg effect – the observation that cancer cells tend to favor metabolism by way of sugar breakdown (glycolysis) rather than the much more efficient pathway that uses oxygen to make energy (oxidative phosphorylation), used by normal cells. This was first observed by Nobel Prize winner Otto Warburg.

Yellow fever – a tropical viral disease affecting the liver and kidneys, causing fever and jaundice and often fatal. It is transmitted by mosquitoes.

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